High-performance (HPC) processing power is increasing all the time. Simultaneously, components are becoming smaller and denser, which means things are really heating up – literally. To handle the heat, liquid cooling is a must. Cutting edge artificial intelligence and HPC clusters don’t just require the highest performing GPUs and CPUs, they are now packed in incredibly dense configurations. That leads to substantially higher wattage densities at both the node and rack level, with rack power densities increasing to 80kW and beyond. Further, given their expense and the critical computing for research these systems are often dedicated to performing, these high-density clusters run at 100% capacity for sustained periods 24/7.